Enterobacteriaceae are mainly spread via hands, contaminated with digestive flora. Hygiene recommendations rest essentially on hand-washing.
However, these recommendations may differ with regard to the patients’ setting (hospital, nursing home, home) or the nature of the Enterobacteriaceae.
In the community and in general practice, recommendations are simple. A summary by AzurClin of recommendations to be followed in the home can be found below. This information sheet should be explained and given to the patient.
In hospitals or other healthcare institutions, transmission of resistant ESBL-producing bacteria to vulnerable patients may result in severe nosocomial infections. It is therefore necessary to strengthen these hygiene precautions with the help of all involved care givers. Since certain Enterobacteriaceae such as Kelbsiella pneumoniae can be more resistant to antibiotics than others, a maximum level of precautions may be required.
An information leaflet written by the CCLIN Sud Est and intended for patients in institutional care can be found below. This should be explained and given to each patient infected with ESBL enterobacteriaceae and to their family.
Information sheet for patients in healthcare institutions
Once a patient with ESBL Enterobacteriaceae is released from hospital care his/her physician should be informed of the necessary precautions to observed at home. A sample letter (applicable to any type of resistant bacteria) can be found below that can be attached to the outgoing mail.